PBIO 1210. Principles of Plant Biology. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: PRIN PLANT BIOL.
Not open to students with credit in BIOL 1103 or BIOL 1107-1107L or BTNY 1210.
Basic principles of biology with an emphasis on plants, including science as a process, cell biology, biochemistry, plant structure and function, energy metabolism, genetics, evolution, and ecology.
Offered fall semester every year.

PBIO 1210H. Principles of Plant Biology (Honors). 1 hour. 1.5 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: PRIN PLANT BIOL HON.
Not open to students with credit in BIOL 1103 or BIOL 1107H or BIOL 1107-1107L or BTNY 1210H.
Prerequisite: Permission of Honors.
Corequisite: PBIO 1210-1210L.
Basic principles of biology with an emphasis on plants, including science as a process, cell biology, biochemistry, plant structure and function, energy metabolism, genetics, evolution, ecology.
Offered fall semester every year.

PBIO 1210L. Principles of Plant Biology Laboratory. 1 hour. 2 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: PRIN PLANT BIOL LAB.
Not open to students with credit in BIOL 1103 or BIOL 1103L or BIOL 1107-1107L or BTNY 1210L.
Prerequisite or corequisite: PBIO 1210.
Provides the opportunity to perform experiments designed to convey the basic principles of plant biology with an emphasis on cell biology, plant structure and function, energy metabolism, genetics, evolution, and ecology.
Offered fall semester every year.

PBIO 1220. Organismal Plant Biology. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: ORG PLANT BIOLOGY.
Not open to students with credit in BIOL 1104 or BIOL 1104L or BIOL 1108-1108L or BTNY 1220.
Plant biology course focused on organisms, including evolution and diversity of plants, fungi, algae, and prokaryotes; environmental interactions; community ecology, symbiosis, and the relation of these organisms to human affairs.
Offered spring semester every year.

PBIO 1220H. Organismal Plant Biology (Honors). 1 hour. 1.5 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: ORG PLANT BIO HON.
Not open to students with credit in BIOL 1104-1104L or BIOL 1108H or BIOL 1108-1108L or BTNY 1220H.
Prerequisite: Permission of Honors.
Corequisite: PBIO 1220-1220L.
Plant biology course focused on organisms. Topics include evolution and diversity of plants, algae, and fungi; environmental interactions; global environmental issues; ethnobotany.
Offered spring semester every year.

PBIO 1220L. Organismal Plant Biology Laboratory. 1 hour. 2 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: ORG PLANT BIO LAB.
Not open to students with credit in BIOL 1104L or BIOL 1108-1108L or BTNY 1220L.
Prerequisite or corequisite: PBIO 1220.
Investigative laboratory experience concerning the diversity of plants, fungi, algae, and prokaryotes; observational study of the major groups of land plants; human uses of plants and plant products.
Offered spring semester every year.

PBIO 1221H. Organismal Plant Biology (Honors). 1 hour.
Oasis Title: ORG PLANT BIO HON.
Prerequisite: Permission of Honors.
Discussions on plants and society. Topics include the green revolution, plant genetic engineering, plant evolution and diversity, plants and the environment, and plants and human health.

(PBIO)(ANTH)PATH 3010. Fungi: Friends and Foes. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: FUNGI FRIENDS&FOES.
Prerequisite: (BIOL 1103 and BIOL 1103L) or (BIOL 1104 and BIOL 1104L) or BIOL 1107-1107L or BIOL 1108-1108L or (PBIO 1220 and PBIO 1220L).
Impact of fungi on human affairs. Historical and current uses of fungi by humans as well as the roles of fungi in various ecosystems.
Offered spring semester every year.

PBIO(BIOL) 3020. Genomic Biology. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: GENOMIC BIOLOGY.
Prerequisite: BIOL 1107-1107L.
An introduction to genomic biology and the bioinformatic underpinning required for its comprehension. Scientific, ethical, economic, legal, and societal impacts arising from these advances will be explored in integrated fashion.
Offered fall semester every year.

PBIO 3060. Rise and Fall of Civilizations, Eco-sociological Constraints, and You!. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: RISE AND FALL.
Prerequisite: BIOL 1104 or BIOL 1108-1108L or PBIO 1220.
Developing sustainable human civilizations is a daunting challenge in the face of increasing populations on our finite planet. Throughout history, numerous civilizations have collapsed; thus we can ask why some have failed, why others survived, and what we might do to enhance the sustainability of human civilizations in the future.
Offered spring semester every year.

PBIO 3160-3160L. Mushrooms. 4 hours. 3 hours lecture and 2 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: MUSHROOMS.
Prerequisite: BIOL 1104 or BIOL 1108-1108L or PBIO 1220 or permission of department.
The study of mushrooms includes 1)the biology, identification, and diversity of mushroom-producing fungi; 2)the history, present techniques, and potential of commercial edible and medicinal mushroom cultivation; and 3)the influence of mushrooms on human culture. The laboratory portion of the class includes field collection and identification, microscopic observations, and laboratory cultivation techniques.
Offered fall semester every odd-numbered year.

(PBIO)(ANTH)HORT 3440. Herbs, Spices, and Medicinal Plants. 2 hours.
Oasis Title: HERB&MEDICINAL PLTS.
Historical and contemporary significance of herbs, spices, and medicinal plants in human culture and commerce; chemical and biological characteristics; commercial production techniques; application in modern and traditional medical systems.
Offered fall semester every year.

PBIO(AFST)(BIOL) 3450. Natural History of Africa. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: NAT HISTORY AFRICA.
Prerequisite: (BIOL 1103 and BIOL 1103L) or permission of department.
The study of natural history on location in Africa. During visits to game parks, rain forests, coral reefs, beaches, and mangrove forests, the animal, plant, and insect species will be identified, and the geological setting will be explained. Human evolution and exploitation of the environment will also be discussed.
Non-traditional format: Background lectures, usually at night, on the topics to be studied or the locations to be visited. Students are required to keep a detailed journal with daily observations of what they have learned and sketches of what they have seen. This is a Study Abroad course taught during the Maymester.
Offered summer semester every year.

PBIO(AFST)(BIOL) 3450H. Natural History of Africa (Honors). 3 hours.
Oasis Title: NAT HISTORY AFRICA.
Not open to students with credit in PBIO(AFST)(BIOL) 3450.
Prerequisite: [(BIOL 1103 and BIOL 1103L) or permission of department] and permission of Honors.
The study of natural history on location in Africa. During visits to game parks, rain forests, coral reefs, beaches, and mangrove forests, the animal, plant, and insect species will be identified, and the geological setting will be explained. Human evolution and exploitation of the environment will also be discussed.
Non-traditional format: Background lectures, usually at night, on the topics to be studied or the locations to be visited. Students are required to keep a detailed journal with daily observations of what they have learned and sketches of what they have seen. Students seeking Honors credit are required to write a paper on a mutually agreed specific topic. This is a Study Abroad course taught during the Maymester.
Offered summer semester every year.

PBIO(BIOL) 3600. Plant Cell and Developmental Biology. 4 hours.
Oasis Title: PLANT CELL DEV BIO.
Prerequisite: BCMB(BIOL)(CHEM) 3100 or BCMB 4010/6010 or BCMB 4020/6020.
Prerequisite or corequisite: GENE(BIOL) 3200 or PGEN 3580.
Structure and function of plant cells, their membranes, cell walls, organelles and tissues; energy transduction and signalling mechanisms; regulation of gene expression in response to the environment, tissue interactions, hormones and during development; developmental programs and their controls during flowering, gametogenesis, fertilization, embryogenesis, seed germination, and morphogenesis.
Offered fall semester every year.

PBIO 3650. Natural History of Georgia Plants. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: GA PLANTS.
Examination of characteristics of both important species and major vegetation types across Georgia. Survey of causes of spatial and temporal patterns in Georgia vegetation: climate, soils, elevation, diseases, disturbances, and exotic species in current, prehistoric, and near future times. Introduction to commonly encountered species in Athens area and beyond.
Offered fall semester every year.

PBIO 3700. Advanced Topics in Plant Biology. 3-4 hours. Repeatable for maximum 8 hours credit.
Oasis Title: TOPICS IN PLANT BIO.
Prerequisite: BIOL 1107-1107L or BIOL 1108-1108L or (PBIO 1210 and PBIO 1210L) or (PBIO 1220 and PBIO 1220L) or permission of department.
Advanced study relating to a central theme of special interest in the field of plant biology. Intended for majors in the Division of Biology. Topics and instructors vary from semester to semester.
Not offered on a regular basis.

PBIO 3830-3830L. Plant Physiology. 4 hours. 3 hours lecture and 3 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: PLANT PHYSIOLOGY.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 3830-3830L.
Prerequisite: PBIO 1210 or (BIOL 1103 and BIOL 1103L) or BIOL 1107-1107L.
Plant physiology for students interested in mechanisms of plant growth and environmental adaptation. Water relations, mineral nutrition, transport of materials, respiration, photosynthesis, growth and development.

PBIO 3900. Readings in Plant Biology. 1-3 hours. Repeatable for maximum 9 hours credit.
Oasis Title: READINGS IN PBIO.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 3900.
Individual or small group directed readings from scientific journals in a selected area of Plant Biology.
Non-traditional format: Independent research.
Offered fall, spring, and summer semesters every year.

PBIO 3900H. Readings in Plant Biology (Honors). 1-3 hours. Repeatable for maximum 9 hours credit.
Oasis Title: READINGS IN PBIO.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 3900 or PBIO 3900 or BTNY 3900H.
Prerequisite: Permission of Honors.
Individual or small group directed readings from scientific journals in a selected area of Plant Biology.
Non-traditional format: Independent research.
Offered fall, spring, and summer semesters every year.

(PBIO)(BCMB)BTEC 4000L. Methods in Biotechnology. 4 hours. 8 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: BTEC METH.
Prerequisite: PGEN 3580 or GENE(BIOL) 3200.
Laboratory instruction in the methods for manipulation of plants, microbes, and animals for biotechnological purposes.
Offered spring semester every year.

PBIO 4160. Life and Death in the Salt Marsh. 4 hours. 10 hours lecture and 10 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: SALT MARSH ECOLOGY.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 4160.
Prerequisite: (BIOL 1104 and BIOL 1104L) or BIOL 1108-1108L or PBIO 1220-1220L or permission of department.
The diversity, adaptations, and interacting functional roles of estuarine plants, animals, and microorganisms. Maymester course which includes a week of study on Sapelo Island where students carry out investigative field research on a chosen topic. The final week is devoted to science writing and presentations.
Non-traditional format: Weeks one and three are lecture hours and week two is full day (8-10 hrs) field study. Offered as in-service course during Maymester.
Not offered on a regular basis.

(PBIO)PATH 4200/6200-4200L/6200L. Introductory Mycology. 3 hours. 2 hours lecture and 3 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: INTRO MYCOLOGY.
Undergraduate prerequisite: (PBIO 1210 and PBIO 1210L and PBIO 1220 and PBIO 1220L) or (BIOL 1103 and BIOL 1103L and BIOL 1104 and BIOL 1104L) or (BIOL 1107-1107L and BIOL 1108-1108L).
Morphology, biology, and taxonomy of fungi. Representatives of all major groups of fungi are considered.
Offered fall semester every year.

(PBIO)CRSS 4210/6210. Seed Physiology. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: SEED PHYSIOLOGY.
Undergraduate prerequisite: [CHEM 2100 or CHEM 2211 or BCMB(BIOL)(CHEM) 3100 or BCMB 4010/6010] and [PGEN 3580 or GENE(BIOL) 3200 or PBIO(CRSS)(BIOL) 4500/6500].
Graduate prerequisite: [BCMB 4010/6010 or BCMB 6000] and [PBIO(CRSS)(BIOL) 4500/6500 or PBIO 8100].
Undergraduate corequisite: CRSS 3300 or HORT 4210/6210 or HORT(CRSS) 4440/6440-4440L/6440L or PBIO 3830-3830L.
Graduate corequisite: HORT 4210/6210 or HORT(CRSS) 4440/6440-4440L/6440L or PBIO 6830.
Regulation of anabolic and catabolic events during seed development, maturation, and germination processes. Ecophysiological consequences of dormancy variables, and agricultural and industrial significance of seed physiology.
Offered fall semester every year.

(PBIO)GEOG 4220/6220. Ecological Biogeography. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: ECOLOG BIOGEOG.
Undergraduate prerequisite: GEOG 1111 or ECOL(BIOL) 3500-3500L or permission of department.
Patterns of plant distribution in contemporary landscapes and underlying processes, including vegetation dynamics, disturbance ecology, biogeomorphology, dendrochronology, and environmental history.
Offered fall and spring semesters every year.

PBIO 4230/6230-4230L/6230L. Plant Anatomy. 4 hours. 2 hours lecture and 4 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: PLANT ANATOMY.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 4230/6230-4230L/6230L.
Undergraduate prerequisite: (BIOL 1104 and BIOL 1104L) or BIOL 1108-1108L or (PBIO 1220 and PBIO 1220L) or permission of department.
Structure and growth of meristems; development and structure of cells, tissues, and tissue systems; comparative anatomy of stems, roots, leaves, flowers, and fruits; survey of recent advances in study of growth and development of form and emphasis on experimental approaches. Assumes elementary knowledge of cell and tissue structure.
Offered fall semester every year.

(PBIO)GEOG 4240/6240. Plant Geography. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: PLANT GEOGRAPHY.
Undergraduate prerequisite: GEOG 3210 or ECOL(BIOL) 3500-3500L or permission of department.
Biogeography and ecology of the world's main terrestrial biomes. Includes world bioclimatic zonation, plant-geographic processes, other physical environmental factors, plant functional roles and types, vegetation dynamics, response to disturbance, and potential natural vegetation. Emphasis on global scale, with secondary emphasis on North America.
Offered fall and spring semesters every year.

PBIO 4250/6250. Biology of Natural Plant Products. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: BIO NATURAL PLANTS.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 4250/6250.
Undergraduate prerequisite: (BIOL 1104 and BIOL 1104L) or BIOL 1108-1108L or (PBIO 1220 and PBIO 1220L) or permission of department.
The biological/ecological role of natural plant products or metabolites such as alkaloids, terpenes, and pigments in relationships and interactions among plants and between plants and animals.
Offered fall semester every even-numbered year.

(PBIO)ANTH(BIOL)(ECOL)(ENTO) 4260/6260-4260L/6260L. Natural History Collections Management. 4 hours. 3 hours lecture and 3 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: NAT HIST COLL MGMT.
Undergraduate prerequisite: Permission of department.
Theories, policies, and operational procedures in the management of natural history collections, including higher category classification, identification, field collecting, accessioning, preparation, curation, and data management.
Offered spring semester every even-numbered year.

(PBIO)(ANTH)(BIOL)ECOL(EETH)(ENTO)(FORS)(GEOL)(PATH) 4261. Museum of Natural History Internship. 3 hours. Repeatable for maximum 6 hours credit. 7 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: MUS NAT HIST INTERN.
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor and permission of Museum of Natural History.
Supervised work experience with a natural history collection. Students will learn techniques and other procedures for curating materials in a collection of their choice under the direction of collection personnel.
Non-traditional format: Students will maintain regular, weekly work schedules totaling 7 hours per week under the supervision of faculty and other collection personnel associated with the Museum of Natural History.
Offered fall, spring, and summer semesters every year.

PBIO 4270/6270. Flowers. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: FLOWERS.
Prerequisite: (BIOL 1103 and BIOL 1103L) or (BIOL 1104 and BIOL 1104L) or BIOL 1107-1107L or BIOL 1108-1108L.
An examination of the basic biology of flowers as well as current research in floral biology. It will include lectures, class discussions on scientific papers, hands-on sessions, and literature or research projects using local spring flowers to help students learn topics in reproductive biology of flowering plants.
Offered spring semester every odd-numbered year.

(PBIO)ANTH 4300/6300-4300L/6300L. Ethnobotany. 3 hours. 2 hours lecture and 2 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: ETHNOBOTANY.
Not open to students with credit in ANTH(BTNY) 4300/6300-4300L/6300L.
Undergraduate prerequisite: ANTH 1102 or permission of major.
Ethnobotanical research, with focus on knowledge and utilization of the plant world in traditional societies. Comparisons of societies in tropical forest ecosystems and evaluation of issues relating to intellectual property rights and traditional peoples' knowledge of plant species with potential economic value.
Not offered on a regular basis.

PBIO(BIOL)(CRSS) 4500/6500. Introduction to Gene Technology. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: GENE TECHNOLOGY.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY(CRSS)(BIOL) 4500/6500.
Undergraduate prerequisite: GENE(BIOL) 3200.
Methods and applications of gene technology (recombinant DNA) and related concepts in molecular biology. These will include structure and synthesis of macromolecules; cDNA and genomic cloning, polymerase chain reaction; molecular markers and mapping; gene isolation strategies; and various host-vector systems.
Offered every year.

PBIO(GENE)(PATH) 4510/6510. Genome Evolution Across the Tree of Life. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: GENOME EVOLUTION.
Undergraduate prerequisite: GENE(BIOL) 3200.
Survey of the wealth of information arising from genomic research conducted on diverse species across the tree of life. Students will explore the evolutionary diversification of genomes in phylogenetically remote organisms and refine critical thinking and technical writing skills through analysis of publications drawn from the recent literature.

(PBIO)ECOL 4520/6520. Plant-Animal Interactions. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: PLANT-ANIMAL.
Undergraduate prerequisite: [ECOL(BIOL) 3500-3500L and ECOL 4000/6000] or permission of department.
Theoretical and applied issues surrounding the ecology and evolution of plant-animal interactions, ranging from antagonistic to mutualistic relationships.
Offered spring semester every odd-numbered year.

PBIO 4530/6530. Evolutionary Developmental Biology. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: DEVELOPMENTAL EVOL.
Undergraduate prerequisite: GENE(BIOL) 3200.
A survey of the wealth of information arising from comparative developmental research conducted on multicellular organisms. Students will explore the evolutionary diversification of developmental pathways in phylogenetically remote organisms and refine critical thinking and technical writing skills through analysis of publications drawn from the recent literature.

PBIO 4540/6540. Plant Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: PLT MOL BIO GENE.
Undergraduate prerequisite: (BIOL 1103 and BIOL 1103L) or BIOL 1107-1107L or PBIO 1210 or permission of department.
Undergraduate prerequisite or corequisite: GENE(BIOL) 3200 or GENE(BIOL) 3200H.
The goals of this course are to convey a working knowledge of plant gene structure, expression and regulation, mutant isolation, genetic mapping and gene cloning, generation of transgenic plants, and the application of the knowledge of plant molecular biology and genetics in producing plants with novel traits.
Offered spring semester every year.

PBIO(BIOL) 4550/6550. Bioinformatics Applications. 3 hours. 2 hours lecture and 2 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: BIOINFORMATICS APPL.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY(BIOL) 6550.
Undergraduate prerequisite: PBIO(BIOL) 3020 or BCMB 3600 or BCMB 3600H or GENE(BIOL) 3200.
Graduate prerequisite: BCMB 8140 or PBIO(CRSS)(BIOL) 4500/6500.
The applications and concepts of computational technologies for solving problems in molecular genetics. Current programs and the principles that underlie them will be discussed. Topics include: sequence and structure databases; sequencing; mapping; sequence alignments (dynamic programming); motifs and profiles; phylogeny reconstruction; probabilistic approaches (Markov models).
Offered spring semester every year.

(PBIO)ECOL 4580/6580. Foundations of Ecology. 2 hours.
Oasis Title: FOUND ECOL.
Not open to students with credit in ECOL 4510/6510.
Reading course to review some classic original papers in ecology.
Offered spring semester every year.

(PBIO)CBIO 4600/6600-4600L/6600L. Biology of Protists. 5 hours. 3 hours lecture and 4 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: BIOL OF PROTISTS.
Undergraduate prerequisite: BIOL 1104 or BIOL 1108-1108L or PBIO 1220-1220L.
Protists (algae, protozoa, and zoosporic fungi) with an emphasis on cell structure, evolution, and life histories. Laboratories will concentrate on examination of living and fixed materials and will include methods of isolation and culturing of protists.
Offered spring semester every odd-numbered year.

PBIO 4640/6640-4640L/6640L. Botanical Illustration. 3 hours. 2 hours lecture and 2 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: BOT ILLUS.
Undergraduate prerequisite: (BIOL 1103 and BIOL 1103L) or (BIOL 1104 and BIOL 1104L) or BIOL 1108-1108L or PBIO 1210 or PBIO 1220 or permission of department.
Graduate prerequisite: (BIOL 1103 and BIOL 1103L) or (BIOL 1104 and BIOL 1104L) or BIOL 1108-1108L or PBIO 1210 or PBIO 1220 or permission of department.
This course, an introduction to botanical illustration, includes instruction in plant morphology and associated terminology. Students sharpen their observation skills by examining plants, macroscopically and microscopically, via hands-on drawing exercises with live material. By creating their own illustrations, students also learn how to fully appreciate and properly evaluate published illustrations.
Offered fall semester every even-numbered year.

PBIO 4650/6650-4650L/6650L. Plant Taxonomy. 4 hours. 2 hours lecture and 4 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: PLANT TAXONOMY.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 4650/6650-4650L/6650L.
Undergraduate prerequisite: (BIOL 1104 and BIOL 1104L) or BIOL 1108-1108L or (PBIO 1220 and PBIO 1220L) or permission of department.
History of taxonomy, nomenclature, characters, identification principles, classification, taxonomic relationships, taxonomic literature, species biology, collecting and herbarium, floristic studies.
Offered spring and summer semesters every year.

PBIO(BCMB)(FORS) 4670/6670. Plant Molecular Responses to the Environment. 4 hours.
Oasis Title: PLANT MOL RESP ENV.
Undergraduate prerequisite: BCMB(BIOL)(CHEM) 3100 or BCMB 4010/6010 or BCMB 4020/6020 or permission of department.
Graduate prerequisite: Permission of department.
Molecular and biochemical regulation of plant metabolic pathways activated in response to environmental cues, environmental stress, and interaction with pathogenic and symbiotic organisms. Cell wall formation (primary wall, wood), secondary metabolism (lignin, flavonoids, phenolics), wounding, plant defense (phytoalexins, oxidative burst, hypersensitivity), responses to drought, flooding, salinity, pollutants (heavy metals, ozone).
Offered fall semester every even-numbered year.

PBIO(ECOL) 4750/6750. Tropical Ecology and Conservation. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: TROP ECOL CONS.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY(ECOL) 4750/6750.
Prerequisite: BIOL 1107-1107L and BIOL 1108-1108L.
Patterns and processes in the origin, maintenance, and loss of the high biological diversity in the tropics, emphasizing particular communities and ecosystems, including tropical rainforest, tropical savannas, tropical islands, and coral reefs.
Offered spring semester every odd-numbered year.

PBIO 4850/6850-4850L/6850L. Vegetation Analysis. 3 hours. 2 hours lecture and 3 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: VEGETATION ANALYSIS.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 4850/6850-4850L/6850L.
Undergraduate prerequisite: (ECOL(BIOL) 3500-3500L and STAT 6220) or permission of department.
Rationale and protocols for various methods of studying vegetation at the population, community and landscape levels. Both field sampling and data analysis techniques will be covered with introduction to several software packages.
Offered spring semester every even-numbered year.

PBIO 4930. Science Writing for General Audiences. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: SCI WRITING.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 4930.
Basics of good writing, editing, and genres of science writing. Students read and discuss science pieces from the popular press and write and critique their own pieces. Includes guest lectures by professional science writers and examination of how the culture of science affects reporting.
Offered spring semester every odd-numbered year.

PBIO 4960. Independent Research in Plant Biology. 1-3 hours. Repeatable for maximum 12 hours credit.
Oasis Title: IND RESEARCH PBIO.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 4960.
Independent research and research participation in a selected area of Plant Biology.
Non-traditional format: Independent research.
Offered fall, spring, and summer semesters every year.

PBIO 4960H. Independent Research in Plant Biology (Honors). 3 hours.
Oasis Title: IND RES PBIO HON.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 4960 or PBIO 4960 or BTNY 4960H.
Prerequisite: Permission of Honors.
Independent research and research participation for Honors students in a selected area of Plant Biology.
Non-traditional format: Students will meet with faculty members on a regular basis.
Offered fall, spring, and summer semesters every year.

PBIO 4970H. Independent Research in Plant Biology (Honors). 3 hours.
Oasis Title: IND RES PBIO HON.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 4970H.
Prerequisite: Permission of Honors.
Independent research and research participation for Honors students in a selected area of Plant Biology.
Non-traditional format: Students will meet with faculty members on a regular basis.
Offered fall, spring, and summer semesters every year.

PBIO 4980H. Independent Research in Plant Biology (Honors). 3 hours.
Oasis Title: IND RES PBIO HON.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 4980H.
Prerequisite: Permission of Honors.
Independent research and research participation for honors students in a selected area of Plant Biology.
Non-traditional format: Students will meet with faculty members on a regular basis.
Offered fall, spring, and summer semesters every year.

PBIO 4990H. Honors Thesis. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: HONOR THESIS.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 4990H.
Prerequisite: Permission of Honors.
Independent research and research participation for Honors students in a selected area of Plant Biology.
Non-traditional format: Students will meet with faculty members on a regular basis.
Offered fall, spring, and summer semesters every year.

PBIO 6350-6350L. Molecular Systematics. 3 hours. 2 hours lecture and 2 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: MOLEC SYSTEM.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 6350-6350L.
Prerequisite: (BIOL 1104 and BIOL 1104L) or BIOL 1108-1108L or (PBIO 1220 and PBIO 1220L).
Phylogenetic analysis, molecular systematic methods, relationships within the higher plants, algae, and fungi based upon analyses of DNA sequences and DNA-derived markers from nuclear and organellar genomes. Labs: computer-assisted techniques for phylogenetic analysis of macromolecular data; individual projects involving the analysis of DNA sequence data.
Offered spring semester every even-numbered year.

PBIO 6710-6710L. Principles of Plant Systematics. 4 hours. 2 hours lecture and 4 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: PRIN PLANT SYSTEM.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 6710-6710L.
Prerequisite: (BIOL 1104 and BIOL 1104L) or BIOL 1108-1108L or (PBIO 1220 and PBIO 1220L).
Systematics, nomenclature, rank and taxa, phylogenetic and phenetic methods, problem design, analytical procedures, data presentation, identification of special groups, classification, phylogenetic relationships, literature and bibliographic aids. Labs: morphology and arrangement of selected phylogenetically significant families; literature-based study of small genus or species complex.
Offered fall semester every even-numbered year.

PBIO 6720-6720L. Plant Variation and Evolution. 4 hours. 2 hours lecture and 4 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: PLANT VAR EVOLUTION.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 6720-6720L.
Prerequisite: GENE(BIOL) 3000.
Variation and evolution in plants, genotypic and phenotypic patterns, genetic diversity, adaptation, breeding systems, polyploidy, hybridization, apomixis, evolutionary data in population genetics and systematics, literature, experimental design, population sampling. Variation analysis, breeding techniques, data presentation, population analysis, molecular evolution.
Offered fall semester every even-numbered year.

PBIO 6830. Plant Physiology. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: PLANT PHYSIOLOGY.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 6830.
Prerequisite: BCMB(BIOL)(CHEM) 3100.
Plant physiology for students with cell physiology or biochemistry background. Water relations, mineral nutrition, transport of materials, respiration, photosynthesis, growth and development.
Offered spring semester every even-numbered year.

PBIO 7000. Master's Research. 1-10 hours. Repeatable for maximum 30 hours credit.
Oasis Title: MASTER'S RESEARCH.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 7000.
Prerequisite: Permission of department.
Research while enrolled for a master's degree under the direction of faculty members.
Non-traditional format: Independent research under the direction of a faculty member.
Offered fall, spring, and summer semesters every year.

PBIO 7005. Graduate Student Seminar. 3 hours. Repeatable for maximum 45 hours credit.
Oasis Title: GRAD STUDENT SEM.
Advanced supervised experience in an applied setting. This course may not be used to satisfy a student's approved program of study.
Non-traditional format: Seminar.
Offered fall, spring, and summer semesters every year.

PBIO 7300. Master's Thesis. 1-10 hours. Repeatable for maximum 14 hours credit.
Oasis Title: MASTER'S THESIS.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 7300.
Prerequisite: Permission of department.
Thesis writing under the direction of the major professor.
Non-traditional format: Independent research and thesis preparation.
Offered fall, spring, and summer semesters every year.

PBIO 7360. Teaching Internship in Biological Sciences. 1-2 hours. Repeatable for maximum 10 hours credit. 1-2 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: TEACHING BIOL SCI.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 7360.
Classroom teaching experience in undergraduate courses under the direct supervision of a faculty member.
Offered fall, spring, and summer semesters every year.

PBIO 7500. Mentoring in Plant Biology. 1-2 hours. Repeatable for maximum 8 hours credit. 2-4 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: MENTORING.
Prerequisite: GRSC 7770.
Graduate students will instruct undergraduates in laboratory or field techniques, help them evaluate and interpret data, and help them prepare results for publication or public presentation. Graduate students will serve an important role in teaching undergraduates modern methods in biological research in a hands-on manner.
Non-traditional format: Assessment will involve regular meetings between supervisor, graduate student and undergraduate. Progress will be gauged according to realistic expectations and research plan/procedures.
Offered fall, spring, and summer semesters every year.

PBIO 7510. Special Teaching Projects in Plant Biology. 1-3 hours. Repeatable for maximum 6 hours credit. 2-6 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: TEACHING PROJECT.
Prerequisite: GRSC 7770.
Graduate student initiated special projects in teaching methods in plant biology and biology.
Non-traditional format: Assessment will involve regular meetings between the graduate student and supervisor(s). Supervisors will measure progress according to a preliminary plan of study/research, plus regular reports from the student.
Offered fall, spring, and summer semesters every year.

PBIO 8020. Introduction to Botanical Research. 1-2 hours.
Oasis Title: INTRO BOT RESEARCH.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 8020.
Prerequisite: Permission of department.
The breadth of current botanical research with the facilities available for botanical research.
Offered fall semester every year.

PBIO 8040. Botanical Research. 1-3 hours. Repeatable for maximum 6 hours credit. 3-9 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: BOTANICAL RESEARCH.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 8040.
Faculty-directed, laboratory, or literature research of a botanical problem. Not for thesis or dissertation research.
Offered fall, spring, and summer semesters every year.

PBIO 8100. Plant Genetics. 4 hours.
Oasis Title: PLANT GENETICS.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 8100.
Prerequisite: GENE(BIOL) 3200 or PBIO(CRSS)(BIOL) 4500/6500 or permssion of department.
Principles and experimental methods in plant genetics, gene expression, and gene evolution. Topics are interrelated with those of Plant Cellular Biology and Plant Development.
Offered fall semester every year.

PBIO 8110. Plant Cellular Biology. 4 hours.
Oasis Title: PLT CELL BIO.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 8110.
Prerequisite: PBIO 8100 or permission of department.
Plant cell biology, including cell structure and function, physiology, biochemistry, and environmental responses. Topics are interrelated with those in Plant Genetics and Plant Development.
Offered spring semester every odd-numbered year.

PBIO 8111. Plant Development. 4 hours.
Oasis Title: PLANT DEVELOP.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 8111.
Prerequisite: PBIO 8100 or permission of department.
Concepts and methods in plant growth and development, including molecular, genetic, cellular and organisimal approaches. Topics are interrelated with those in Plant Genetics and Plant Cellular Biology.
Offered spring semester every even-numbered year.

(PBIO)ECOL 8120-8120L. Plant Reproductive Ecology. 4 hours. 2 hours lecture and 4 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: PLT REPRO ECOL.
Prerequisite: Permission of department.
Pollination ecology, breeding systems, patterns of gene flow via pollen and seed dispersal, flower arrangement and phenology, and implications of reproductive biology for demography. Group and individual laboratory projects.
Not offered on a regular basis.

PBIO(ECOL) 8130. Macroecology Seminar. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: MACROECOLOGY SEM.
Prerequisite: BIOL 1104.
Prerequisite or corequisite: ECOL 4000/6000.
Macroecology is a rapidly emerging field focused on understanding ecological and evolutionary patterns and processes on large spatial and temporal scales. Macroecology lies at the interface of ecology, conservation biology, biogeography, phylogeography, and paleobiology. The course format is a combination of lectures and graduate seminar on current literature.
Offered fall semester every odd-numbered year.

PBIO 8140. Algal Ecology. 2 hours.
Oasis Title: ALGAL ECOLOGY.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 8140.
Prerequisite: CBIO(PBIO) 4600/6600-4600L/6600L or permission of department.
Physiological ecology of algae found in various habitats, including phytoplankton, benthic microalgae, seaweeds, and symbiotic associations.
Offered spring semester every even-numbered year.

(PBIO)ECOL(ENTO) 8150. Wetland Ecology. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: WETLAND ECOLOGY.
Prerequisite: Permission of department.
Principles of ecology, elemental cycling, hydrology, policy and management of marine and freshwater wetlands.
Offered spring semester every odd-numbered year.

(PBIO)ECOL(ENTO) 8150L. Wetland Ecology Laboratory. 1 hour. 3 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: WETLAND ECOLOGY LAB.
Prerequisite: ECOL(ENTO)(PBIO) 8150 or permission of department.
Techniques for the study of marine and freshwater wetlands. Optional weekend field trips will explore distant wetland sites.
Not offered on a regular basis.

(PBIO)PATH 8210-8210L. Biology of Ascomycetes. 3 hours. 2 hours lecture and 3 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: BIO ASCOMYCETES.
Prerequisite: PATH(PBIO) 4200/6200-4200L/6200L.
Comparative morphology of ascomycetes and their asexual stages; principles of taxonomy and training in identification.
Offered fall semester every even-numbered year.

PBIO 8230. Monoclonal Antibodies as Research Tools. 5 hours. 2 hours lecture and 9 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: ANTIBODIES AS TOOLS.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 8230.
Prerequisite: BCMB 6000.
The theoretical and practical aspects of antibodies as research tools in the life sciences. Production of both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies will be considered, as well as their applications for immunovisualization, immunopurification, immunoquantitation, and other analytical applications.
Offered fall semester every year.

(PBIO)ECOL(FORS) 8310. Population Ecology. 4 hours. 3 hours lecture and 2 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: POPULATION ECOLOGY.
Prerequisite: ECOL(BIOL) 3500-3500L and permission of department.
Advanced ecological theory to biological populations. Mathematical and evolutionary treatment of population growth and regulation, niche theory, foraging theory, predator-prey theory, habitat selection, and competition.
Offered fall semester every year.

PBIO(PATH) 8320-8320L. Zoosporic Fungi and Slime Molds. 3 hours. 1 hour lecture and 4 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: ZOOSPORIC FUNGI.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY(PATH) 8320-8320L.
Prerequisite: PATH(PBIO) 4200/6200-4200L/6200L.
Comparative biology of zoosporic fungi and slime molds as organisms. Topics include current research in morphology and development, phylogeny, physiology, ecology and the use of selected organisms as model systems. Laboratory will emphasize isolation and cultivation of these organisms and demonstration of their reproductive stages.
Offered fall semester every odd-numbered year.

PBIO(PATH) 8340-8340L. Experimental Mycology. 3 hours. 2 hours lecture and 2 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: EXPTL MYCOLOGY.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY(PATH) 8340-8340L.
Prerequisite: PATH(PBIO) 4200/6200-4200L/6200L.
Fungal biology and ecology and the use of fungi as experimental organisms in the study of development and molecular biology and genetics.
Not offered on a regular basis.

PBIO 8360. Fungal Ecology. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: FUNGAL ECOLOGY.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 8360.
Prerequisite: PATH(PBIO) 4200/6200-4200L/6200L.
The role of fungi in the environment. Topics include fungal populations; biotic interactions with plants, insects, and other fungi; decomposition and nutrient cycling; fungal biomass and productivity; fungi in extreme environments.
Offered fall semester every even-numbered year.

PBIO(ECOL)(FORS) 8410. Community Ecology. 4 hours.
Oasis Title: COMM ECOLOGY.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY(FORS)(ECOL) 8410.
Prerequisite: ECOL 4010/6010 and STAT 4220.
The applicability of advanced theory to multi-species communities. Patterns and processes that influence species composition, diversity, and function. Topics include deterministic vs. stochastic regulation, succession, resource partitioning, patch dynamics, island biogeography, and food webs.
Offered spring semester every year.

PBIO 8600. Aquatic Plants. 4 hours. 3 hours lecture and 2 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: AQUATIC PLANTS.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 8600.
Prerequisite: (BIOL 1103 and BIOL 1103L) or (BIOL 1104 and BIOL 1104L) or (PBIO 1210 and PBIO 1210L) or (PBIO 1220 and PBIO 1220L) or permission of department.
Identification and biology of aquatic macrophytes with emphasis on field work.
Non-traditional format: Local and over-night field trips required.
Offered fall semester every odd-numbered year.

PBIO 8700. Plant Population and Biology Seminar. 1-2 hours. Repeatable for maximum 15 hours credit. 2-4 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: PLANT POP BIO SEM.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 8700.
Prerequisite: Permission of department.
Seminar on current research topics in plant population biology.
Offered fall and spring semesters every year.

PBIO(ECOL)(FORS) 8770. Communities and Ecosystems. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: COMM & ECO OF WORLD.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 8770.
Advanced synthesis of physiological, population, community, and ecosystem studies in the major terrestrial plant associations of the world.
Offered spring semester every even-numbered year.

PBIO 8800. Plant Systematics and Evolution Seminar. 1-2 hours. Repeatable for maximum 16 hours credit. 2-4 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: PLANT SYSTMS EVOLUT.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 8800.
Seminar on current botanical research topics.
Offered spring semester every odd-numbered year.

PBIO 8810. Mycology Seminar. 1-2 hours. Repeatable for maximum 15 hours credit. 2-4 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: MYCOLOGY SEMINAR.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 8810.
Seminar on current botanical research topics.
Offered fall semester every year.

PBIO 8820. Plant Physiology Seminar. 1-2 hours. Repeatable for maximum 15 hours credit. 2-4 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: PLANT PHYSIOLOGY SM.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 8820.
Seminar on current botanical research topics.
Not offered on a regular basis.

PBIO 8830. Plant Biology Seminar. 1 hour. Repeatable for maximum 12 hours credit.
Oasis Title: PLANT BIOL SEMINAR.
Participation and review of topics related to seminars delivered by invited guest speakers at departmental seminars. Students are required to attend all department weekly seminars. Each week, students will prepare an overview and summary of the guest speaker's topic for distribution to the rest of the department.
Offered fall and spring semesters every year.

PBIO 8840. Plant Ecology Seminar. 1-2 hours. Repeatable for maximum 18 hours credit. 2-4 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: PLANT ECOLOGY SEM.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 8840.
Seminar on current plant ecology and related research topics.
Not offered on a regular basis.

PBIO(CRSS)(ECOL)(FORS) 8850-8850L. Terrestrial Biogeochemical Cycling. 4 hours. 2 hours lecture and 4 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: TERR BIOGECHEM CYCL.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 8850-8850L.
Prerequisite: ECOL(BIOL) 3500-3500L or STAT 4210 or STAT 4220.
Plant processes which mediate biogeochemical cycling on land. Includes survey of global element cycling, functions of essential elements, element acquisition, translocation and loss by plants, litter decomposition, and methods of estimating standing stocks of elements in and transfer rates of elements between ecosystem components.
Offered spring semester every odd-numbered year.

PBIO 8860. Plant Anatomy, Morphology, and Cell Biology Seminar. 1-2 hours. Repeatable for maximum 18 hours credit. 2-4 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: PLT ANTY MORPH CELL.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 8860.
Seminar on current topics in plant anatomy, morphology, and cell biology.
Not offered on a regular basis.

(PBIO)CRSS 8870. Advanced Plant Genetics. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: ADV PLANT GENETICS.
Not open to students with credit in CRSS(BTNY) 8900 or CRSS(BTNY) 8870.
Prerequisite: PBIO 8100 or permission of department.
The history, and state of the art, in genetic and molecular analysis of complex eukaryotic genomes. We will discuss in detail how genomes can be dissected into manageable parts that can be analyzed by a variety of molecular techniques, to investigate questions in genetics, breeding, and evolution. Special emphasis will be placed upon molecular analysis of quantitative inheritance, genetic mapping by a variety of techniques, physical mapping and map-based cloning, with examples drawn from various genome projects ranging from Arabidopsis to human.
Offered every odd-numbered year.

PBIO 8890-8890L. Plant Physiological Ecology. 4 hours. 3 hours lecture and 3 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: PL PHYS ECOLOGY.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 8890-8890L.
Prerequisite: PBIO 6830.
Energy balances, water relations, stomatal physiology, gas exchange, environmental aspects of mineral nutrition, stress physiology, and productivity.
Offered spring semester every odd-numbered year.

PBIO 8930. Science Writing for General Audiences. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: SCI WRITING.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 8930.
Covers basics of good writing and genres of science writing. Includes guest lectures by professional science writers. Students read and discuss science pieces from the popular press, write and critique their own pieces, and pursue special projects. Includes examination of how scientists can better communicate with a general audience.
Offered spring semester every even-numbered year.

PBIO(BCMB)(GENE)(PATH) 8960. Genetics of Yeast and Filamentous Fungi. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: GENETICS OF FUNGI.
Prerequisite: Permission of department.
Classical genetics and molecular biology of budding yeast, fission yeast, and model filamentous fungi. Includes life cycle, cell cycle, cytoskeleton, mating types, morphogenesis, pathogenesis, mutant screens, and cloning strategies.
Offered spring semester every even-numbered year.

PBIO 8970. Current Topics in Research. 1-2 hours. Repeatable for maximum 15 hours credit. 2-4 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: CURR TOPICS RESCH.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 8970.
Subjects of current interest in plant research. Current literature and modern analysis of research results. Course is designed to meet the specific research needs of the student.
Not offered on a regular basis.

PBIO 8980. Special Topics in Plant Biology. 1-2 hours. Repeatable for maximum 18 hours credit. 2-4 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: SPEC TOPICS IN PBIO.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 8980.
Discussion of selected topics in plant biology.
Not offered on a regular basis.

PBIO 9000. Doctoral Research. 1-10 hours. Repeatable for maximum 45 hours credit.
Oasis Title: DOCTORAL RESEARCH.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 9000.
Prerequisite: Permission of department.
Research while enrolled for a doctoral degree under the direction of faculty members.
Non-traditional format: Independent research under the direction of a faculty member.
Offered fall, spring, and summer semesters every year.

PBIO 9005. Doctoral Graduate Student Seminar. 3 hours. Repeatable for maximum 45 hours credit.
Oasis Title: DOC GRAD STU SEM.
Advanced supervised experience in an applied setting. This course may not be used to satisfy a student's approved program of study.
Non-traditional format: Seminar.
Offered fall, spring, and summer semesters every year.

PBIO 9300. Doctoral Dissertation. 1-10 hours. Repeatable for maximum 12 hours credit.
Oasis Title: DOCT DISSERTATION.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 9300.
Prerequisite: Permission of department.
Dissertation writing under the direction of the major professor.
Non-traditional format: Independent research and preparation of the doctoral dissertation.
Offered fall, spring, and summer semesters every year.