ECOL 1000-1000L. Ecological Basis of Environmental Issues. 4 hours. 3 hours lecture and 3 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: ENVIRONMENT ISSUES.
Not open to students with credit in LAND 1000.
Ecological concepts that form the basis for understanding environmental issues confronting us; population growth, loss of diversity, resource limitation, pollution, and global climate change.
Non-traditional format: This course is also offered through University System of Georgia Independent Study (USGIS).
Offered fall and spring semesters every year.

ECOL 1000H. Ecological Basis of Environmental Issues (Honors). 4 hours. 3 hours lecture and 3 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: ENVIRONMENT HONORS.
Not open to students with credit in GEOG 1125 or ECOL 1000-1000L or ECOL 3070.
Prerequisite: Permission of Honors.
Introduction to ecological concepts of population growth, loss of diversity, resource limitation, pollution, and global climate change. Taught at various locales in the United States.
Offered summer semester every year.

ECOL 3000-3000L. Introduction to Field Methods. 4 hours. Repeatable for maximum 8 hours credit. 4 hours lecture and 4 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: INTRO FIELD METHODS.
Prerequisite: BIOL 1108-1108L and permission of department.
Survey of quantitative field methods in ecology. Lectures and field applications focus on research design and hypothesis testing, with an emphasis on sampling design, measurement, and statistical comparison of environmental variables, plant and animal abundance, diversity, spatial pattern, and species composition. Students will build skills in statistical analysis, scientific rigor, and critical thinking, and in the practical application of quantitative field methods in ecology.
Non-traditional format: This course is taught in Costa Rica.
Offered fall and summer semesters every year.

ECOL 3070. Environment and Humans. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: ENVIRONMENT&HUMANS.
Not open to students with credit in ECOL 1000-1000L or GEOG 1125-1125D.
Macro-environmental problems currently faced by humans placing them in historical perspective, and relating them to the natural laws and ecological processes which govern the outcome of human-environmental interactions.
Non-traditional format: This course is also offered through University System of Georgia Independent Study (USGIS).
Not offered on a regular basis.

ECOL 3100-3100L. Tropical Field Ecology. 4 hours. 4 hours lecture and 4 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: TROPICAL FIELD ECOL.
Prerequisite: BIOL 1108-1108L and permission of department.
An interdisciplinary field program in tropical habitats, exploring and comparing tropical environments, their natural history, their biological wealth, and the ecological patterns, processes, and interactions that characterize tropical systems. Students will develop competence in recognition and observation of tropical organisms in the wild. Analysis of the interplay of tropical nature and human society, the threats to tropical biodiversity, and current conservation approaches in the tropics.
Non-traditional format: This course is taught in Costa Rica.
Offered fall semester every year.

ECOL 3220. Biology and Conservation of Marine Mammals. 4 hours.
Oasis Title: MAR MAM ECOLOGY.
Marine mammal biology and conservation with a primary focus on marine mammals common to the southeastern United States. Topics will include anatomy/physiology, population dynamics, captive management and rehabilitation, law and public policy, and careers in marine mammal science.
Non-traditional format: This course includes field trips to the Georgia Aquarium (behind the scenes) and the Skidaway Institute of Oceanography (on water activities, dolphin watch boat).
Offered summer semester every year.

ECOL 3260-3260L. Vertebrate Diversity and Evolution. 4 hours. 2 hours lecture and 4 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: VERT DIVERSITY EVOL.
Not open to students with credit in CBIO 3000-3000L.
Prerequisite: BIOL 1104 or BIOL 1108-1108L or permission of department.
The evolution, diversity, and higher order relationships of vertebrate animals and their principal adaptations to life.
Not offered on a regular basis.

ECOL 3400. Junior Seminar. 1 hour.
Oasis Title: JUNIOR SEMINAR.
Prerequisite: Junior standing and permission of major.
Ecology seminar used to introduce juniors entering the major with the way ecological science is organized, to explain the requirements of the major, and show options to create personalized programs for specific interests, employment or continued schooling. Career and graduate school opportunities will be discussed.
Offered fall semester every year.

ECOL(BIOL) 3500-3500L. Ecology. 4 hours. 3 hours lecture and 3 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: ECOLOGY.
Not open to students with credit in GEOG 3210.
Prerequisite: [BIOL 1104 or BIOL 1108-1108L or (PBIO 1220 and PBIO 1220L)] and [(CHEM 1211 and CHEM 1211L) or (CHEM 1311H and CHEM 1311L)].
Population structure and dynamics, organization and classification of communities, and nutrient and energy flows in ecosystems.
Non-traditional format: This course is also offered through University System of Georgia Independent Study (USGIS).
Offered fall, spring, and summer semesters every year.

ECOL(BIOL) 3510. Ecology Laboratory. 3-4 hours. Repeatable for maximum 10 hours credit.
Oasis Title: ECOLOGY LABORATORY.
Prerequisite: ECOL(BIOL) 3500-3500L.
Techniques and methodologies to assess organismal, population, community, or ecosystem interactions.
Non-traditional format: A field course taught for blocks of time off-campus (semester breaks or summer). Additional on-campus lecture hours may be added depending upon the field schedule.
Offered fall and spring semesters every year.

ECOL 3520. Ecological Applications. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: ECOLOG APPLICATIONS.
Prerequisite: ECOL(BIOL) 3500-3500L.
Current ecological approaches used to quantify impacts of natural and human disturbances on ecosystem structure and function. Case studies illustrate impacts and management strategies in fields such as environmental toxicology, conservation ecology, agroecosystem ecology, and restoration ecology.
Offered spring semester every year.

ECOL 3530-3530D. Conservation Biology. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: CONSERV BIOLOGY.
Prerequisite: BIOL 1108-1108L.
The scientific study of the phenomena that affect the maintenance, loss, and restoration of biological diversity.
Offered fall semester every year.

(ECOL)FORS 3580-3580L. Vertebrate Natural History. 5 hours. 3 hours lecture and 4 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: VERTEBRATE NAT HIST.
Prerequisite: BIOL 1108-1108L.
Life history strategies of vertebrates with emphasis on ecology, behavior, taxonomy, and systematics.
Offered spring semester every year.

(ECOL)(BIOL)(EHSC)ENTO(LAND) 3590-3590L. Urban Entomology. 4 hours. 3 hours lecture and 2 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: URBAN ENTOMOLOGY.
Prerequisite: (BIOL 1104 and BIOL 1104L) or BIOL 1108-1108L or permission of department.
Urban entomology, including identification, biology, and control of insects and selected arthropod pests with emphasis on the efficacy and environmental impact of pest control tactics in the urban habitat.
Offered spring semester every year.

ECOL 3700. Organic Agriculture: Ecological Agriculture and the Ethics of Sustainability. 4 hours. 5 hours lecture and 25 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: ORGANIC AGRICULTURE.
Prerequisite: Permission of department.
This interdisciplinary maymester field course will explore the fundamental principles of sustainable agriculture through hands-on experience at an operating organic farm and agroforestry research center. Also includes a critical discussion of the social, political, and cultural issues involved in creating a more sustainable food system.
Non-traditional format: Hands-on experience at an operating organic farm and agroforestry research center.
Offered summer semester every year.

ECOL 3900. Directed Reading. 2-3 hours. Repeatable for maximum 10 hours credit.
Oasis Title: DIRECTED READING.
Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing and permission of department.
Detailed study of a restricted area of ecology through reading and discussion of original papers and reviews under the direction of a faculty supervisor.
Non-traditional format: Faculty members will arrange contact hours with individual student.
Offered fall, spring, and summer semesters every year.

ECOL 3900H. Directed Reading (Honors). 2-3 hours. Repeatable for maximum 10 hours credit.
Oasis Title: DIRECTED READING H.
Prerequisite: (Junior or senior standing) and permission of department and permission of Honors.
Detailed study of a restricted area of ecology through reading and discussion of original papers and reviews under the direction of a faculty supervisor.
Non-traditional format: Faculty members will arrange contact hours with individual student.
Offered fall, spring, and summer semesters every year.

ECOL 3910. Undergraduate Ecology Seminar. 1 hour. Repeatable for maximum 4 hours credit.
Oasis Title: ECOLOGY SEMINAR.
Prerequisite: Permission of major.
Attendance is required at eight ecology lectures and a written review of each that is turned in to the undergraduate coordinator.
Offered fall and spring semesters every year.

ECOL 4000/6000. Population and Community Ecology. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: POPULAT COMM ECOL.
Undergraduate prerequisite: ECOL(BIOL) 3500-3500L and MATH 2210.
The birth, death, and movement of organisms, with particular reference to population dynamics; the forces that structure communities of plants and animals.
Offered fall semester every year.

ECOL 4010/6010. Ecosystem Ecology. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY.
Undergraduate prerequisite: ECOL(BIOL) 3500-3500L and MATH 2210.
Ecosystem structure and function with emphasis on energetic and biogeochemical processes in natural and managed ecosystems, from local to global scales.
Offered spring semester every year.

ECOL 4020/6020-4020L/6020L. Field Systems Ecology. 4 hours. 2 hours lecture and 6 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: FIELD SYSTEMS ECOL.
Undergraduate prerequisite: ECOL(BIOL) 3500-3500L and MATH 2210 and MATH 2210L.
Ecology, field biology, and dynamic processes of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems integrated by empirical monitoring and systems modeling within a campus watershed. Field trips to the Smoky Mountains and Georgia coast will extend the principles to a regional geographic scale.
Non-traditional format: The projects will be conducted on an unscheduled basis, requiring open access to laboratory and computer facilities.
Offered fall semester every odd-numbered year.

ECOL 4030/6030-4030L/6030L. Mammalogy. 4 hours. 2 hours lecture and 6 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: MAMMALOGY.
Undergraduate prerequisite: BIOL 1108-1108L.
Taxonomy, distribution, ecology, and evolution of mammals.
Not offered on a regular basis.

ECOL 4050/6050-4050L/6050L. Ichthyology. 4 hours. 3 hours lecture and 3 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: ICHTHYOLOGY.
Undergraduate prerequisite: BIOL 1108-1108L.
Taxonomy, distribution, ecology, evolution, and conservation of the marine and freshwater fishes.
Offered spring semester every year.

ECOL(GENE) 4060/6060-4060L/6060L. Ornithology. 3 hours. 2 hours lecture and 3 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: ORNITHOLOGY.
Undergraduate prerequisite: BIOL 1108-1108L.
Identification, classification, life histories, evolution, and behavior of birds, with an emphasis on Georgia species.
Offered spring semester every even-numbered year.

ECOL 4070/6070-4070L/6070L. Invertebrate Zoology. 4 hours. 3 hours lecture and 6 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: INVERTEBRATE ZOOL.
Undergraduate prerequisite: BIOL 1108-1108L.
Functional morphology, taxonomy, phylogeny, and general biology of invertebrates.
Offered fall semester every year.

ECOL 4100/6100-4100L/6100L. Ecological Biocomplexity. 4 hours.
Oasis Title: BIOCOMPLEXITY.
Prerequisite: Permission of department.
Theory of complex systems applied to ecology and estuarine ecosystems. Team projects will provide experience in field and laboratory methods, data acquisition and analysis, and simulation modeling and systems analysis. Software to be used includes Stella for building simulation models and Matlab for systems analysis methods.
Non-traditional format: Course to be taught at Skidaway Institute of Oceanography. Students will be residents in dorms at Skidaway and the class will meet for approximately eight hours per day. The course will be intensive, featuring field projects conducted on an unscheduled basis, and requiring open access to laboratory and computer facilities. Lectures will be integrated within the field and laboratory experiences.
Offered summer semester every year.

ECOL 4110/6110. Insect Diversity. 4 hours. 1 hour lecture and 6 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: INSECT DIVERSITY.
Undergraduate prerequisite: Permission of department.
The biodiversity of tropical and temperate insects, including theoretical issues, natural history, and methods for study.
Not offered on a regular basis.

ECOL 4120H. Ecology of Global Change (Honors). 2 hours.
Oasis Title: ECOL GLOBAL CHANGE.
Prerequisite: Upper division standing and permission of Honors.
We will read journal papers and other literature as the basis for discussing the following three major global change issues: conservation of biodiversity, management of water resources, and climate change. In addition to the focus on ecology we will invite outside speakers to provide economic and legal perspectives.
Offered spring semester every year.

ECOL 4130L. Ecological Methodology. 3 hours. 1 hour lecture and 4 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: ECOL METHODOLOGY.
Prerequisite: [ECOL(BIOL) 3500-3500L and ECOL 4000/6000] or permission of department.
Introduction to conceptual and empirical aspects of field ecology in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.
Non-traditional format: As an ecological methods course, this course will require extensive work outside of classroom and 4 hours of lab a week. Students will be required to analyze data and write scientific papers for each field experiment. Students will be encouraged to learn how to use SAS for statistical analyses and will be required to write a grant proposal and conduct the experiments proposed in their proposal.
Offered spring semester every year.

ECOL(BIOL) 4150/6150-4150D/6150D. Population Biology of Infectious Diseases. 4 hours.
Oasis Title: POP BIOL INFECT DIS.
Undergraduate prerequisite: (BIOL 1104 or BIOL 1108-1108L or PBIO 1220) and (STAT 2000 or MATH 2200 or MATH 2250).
Ecology and evolution of infectious diseases that affect free-living animals, plants and human populations. Topics include pathogen life history and transmission modes, epidemiology and impacts on hosts, evolution of resistance and virulence, emerging infectious diseases, and the role of parasites in wildlife conservation.
Offered fall semester every even-numbered year.

ECOL 4160. Ecology of North America. 4 hours.
Oasis Title: ECOL OF NORTH AMER.
Prerequisite: Permission of department.
Ecological survey of North American ecosystems taught in the field from coastal Georgia to southwest deserts and the Pacific Northwest. Application of ecological principles such as biodiversity and ecosystem function, climate change, disturbance, pollution, and trophic food web interactions. Consideration of human interaction with the environment, past, present, and future.
Non-traditional format: May be taught during summer session in the field as part of the Interdisciplinary Field Program.
Offered summer semester every year.

(ECOL)FORS(CRSS)(ENGR)(GEOG)(GEOL) 4170L/6170L. Hydrology, Geology, and Soils of Georgia. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: HYDROLOGY FIELD LAB.
Prerequisite: Permission of school.
This field course focuses on the physical environment of Georgia by examining the diverse geology, soils, and surface and subsurface hydrologic processes within the state. We will travel to all of Georgia's physiographic areas, visiting mines, farms, forests, wetlands, rivers, lakes, and estuaries to explore the influence of human activities on the physical environment.
Non-traditional format: This is a Maymester field course, with lectures and laboratories scheduled during the entire session. Students are expected to travel throughout the state. Class will begin Period 1 on Day 1, and will end on the last day of the session.
Offered summer semester every year.

(ECOL)ANTH 4210/6210. Zooarchaeology. 4 hours. 3 hours lecture and 2 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: ZOOARCHAEOLOGY.
Prerequisite: Permission of department.
Animal remains recovered from archaeological sites, studied in light of zoological and archaeological methods and theories and interpreted in terms of human and animal behavior.
Offered every year.

ECOL 4240/6240-4240L/6240L. Physiological Ecology. 3 hours. 2 hours lecture and 3 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: PHYSIOLOGICAL ECOL.
Undergraduate prerequisite: BIOL 1108-1108L.
Physiological responses of organisms to environmental factors.
Not offered on a regular basis.

(ECOL)FORS(GEOG) 4250/6250. International Forest Management. 1-6 hours. Repeatable for maximum 10 hours credit.
Oasis Title: INTERNL FOREST MGMT.
Prerequisite: Permission of school.
Study-abroad to examine issues pertaining to the management of forested landscapes in the visited country. Introductory lectures on the natural and cultural history of the visited country will be followed by extended field examination of the country's forest resources and their management.
Non-traditional format: Combination of lectures and field experiences in a foreign country.
Offered summer semester every year.

(ECOL)ANTH(BIOL)(ENTO)(PBIO) 4260/6260-4260L/6260L. Natural History Collections Management. 4 hours. 3 hours lecture and 3 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: NAT HIST COLL MGMT.
Undergraduate prerequisite: Permission of department.
Theories, policies, and operational procedures in the management of natural history collections, including higher category classification, identification, field collecting, accessioning, preparation, curation, and data management.
Offered spring semester every even-numbered year.

(ECOL)ANTH(BIOL)(EETH)(ENTO)(FANR)(GEOL)(PATH)(PBIO) 4261. Museum of Natural History Internship. 3 hours. Repeatable for maximum 6 hours credit. 7 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: MUS NAT HIST INTERN.
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor and permission of Museum of Natural History.
Supervised work experience with a natural history collection. Students will learn techniques and other procedures for curating materials in a collection of their choice under the direction of collection personnel.
Non-traditional format: Students will maintain regular, weekly work schedules totaling 7 hours per week under the supervision of faculty and other collection personnel associated with the Museum of Natural History.
Offered fall, spring, and summer semesters every year.

ECOL 4270/6270. Natural History for Educators. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: NATURAL HIST EDUC.
Prerequisite: BIOL 1104 or BIOL 1108-1108L or permission of department.
Overview of natural history of animals, fungi and plants, including classification, diversity, adaptations, and basic curator skills; emphasis on integration into pre-college science curricula.
Non-traditional format: In addition to the lecture hours, students are required to attend at least one day field trip on a Saturday.
Offered fall semester every even-numbered year.

(ECOL)FORS(AAEC)(ANTH)(GEOG)(INTL)(RLST) 4271/6271. Field Studies in Natural Resources. 1-9 hours. Repeatable for maximum 10 hours credit.
Oasis Title: NAT RES FIELD STUDY.
Prerequisite: Permission of department.
Field studies to explore the management and conservation of natural resources with a focus on issues related to forestry, wildlife, ecology, recreation and tourism, geology, and/or coastal/water resources. The impact of humans on these resources will also be emphasized.
Non-traditional format: The course will include an extended field experience and series of lectures combined with seminars, presentations, and/or student projects.
Offered summer semester every year.

(ECOL)ANTH 4290/6290. Environmental Archaeology. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: ENVIRONMENTAL ARCH.
Survey of theories and methods used to study the relationship between humans and their environment. Emphasis is on subsistence strategies and environmental reconstructions based on archaeological evidence and the techniques of zooarchaeology, paleobotany, and paleonutrition.
Not offered on a regular basis.

ECOL(FISH)(WASR) 4310/6310-4310L/6310L. Limnology. 4 hours. 3 hours lecture and 4 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: LIMNOLOGY.
Not open to students with credit in FORS 4310/6310-4310L/6310L.
Undergraduate prerequisite: ECOL(BIOL) 3500-3500L or FORS 3300 or WILD(FISH) 3000.
Aquatic ecosystems (lakes and streams) and their biota. Linkages between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.
Offered fall semester every year.

(ECOL)FORS 4360/6360. Fish Ecology. 4 hours.
Oasis Title: FISH ECOLOGY.
Undergraduate prerequisite: ECOL(BIOL) 3500-3500L or FORS 3020-3020L.
Undergraduate prerequisite or corequisite: ECOL 4050/6050-4050L/6050L.
Lectures and discussions will be used to provide an interactive exploration of the ecology of fishes. Topics include: foraging, reproduction, habitat selection, niche, competition, and the mechanisms controlling fish biodiversity. Instruction includes both the status of a topic and appropriate research designs. The latter materials will be relevant to most animal taxa.
Offered spring semester every year.

ECOL 4400H. Evolution of the Biosphere (Honors). 4 hours.
Oasis Title: EVOL OF BIOSPHERE.
Prerequisite: ECOL(BIOL) 3500-3500L and CHEM 2211 and MATH 2210 and permission of Honors.
Critical evaluation of fundamental concepts and emerging ideas pertaining to the origin and maintenance of life; biological diversity and the role of biological diversity in biogeochemical cycles and ecosystem function.
Non-traditional format: Students must attend two hours of lecture each week as well as a two-hour discussion period. There are four regularly scheduled contact hours between the faculty member and students each week.
Offered spring semester every year.

ECOL(PBIO) 4520/6520. Plant-Animal Interactions. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: PLANT-ANIMAL.
Undergraduate prerequisite: [ECOL(BIOL) 3500-3500L and ECOL 4000/6000] or permission of department.
Theoretical and applied issues surrounding the ecology and evolution of plant-animal interactions, ranging from antagonistic to mutualistic relationships.
Not offered on a regular basis.

ECOL 4560/6560. Science and Art of Conservation. 4 hours.
Oasis Title: SCI ART CONSERV.
Prerequisite: Permission of department.
Multidisciplinary field course examining contemporary challenges in resource conservation, using Ossabaw Island, Georgia as the primary study site. Open to third-year students, fourth-year students and graduate students from all departments. All students are required to conduct two projects, and present their projects and findings to the class at end of session. Lab fee required.
Non-traditional format: Primitive camping conditions, multidisciplinary lectures, and individual projects and reports. Maymester course: Students will spend 8-10 hours daily conducting coastal geomorphology, natural history sessions, field techniques in ecology, environmental design, historic reservation, history, botany, ornithology etc.i.e. several facets of landscape conservation interdisciplinary interactions between these variables. Students get daily lectures in all above, plus guest lectures from Dept. of Natural Resources personnel in Island Management inssues and conservation politics. Students also are responsible for completing two projects each while on the island, one in either Ecology or Natural History and one in Environmental Art. They also read and lead discusssions based upon various books examining contemporary conservation challenges.
Offered summer semester every year.

ECOL 4570/6570. Comparative Biodiversity and Land Conservation Policy: Costa Rica and the United States. 4 hours.
Oasis Title: COMP BIODIV & CONS.
Comparision of the land conservation and biodiversity policies of Costa Rica and the United States. Seven of Costa Rica's leading attorneys, policy developers, and economists in the field of biodiversity and land conservation policy will give lectures to students throughout the course.
Non-traditional format: An intensive, two-week study abroad course in Costa Rica taught in late July every year. Students will have 3-4 hours of lecture/discussion per day and 3-4 hours of other learning content with professors per day (e.g., guided tours and hikes).
Offered summer semester every year.

ECOL(PBIO) 4580/6580. Foundations of Ecology. 2 hours.
Oasis Title: FOUND ECOL.
Not open to students with credit in ECOL 4510/6510.
Reading course to review some classic original papers in ecology.
Offered spring semester every year.

(ECOL)PBIO 4750/6750. Tropical Ecology and Conservation. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: TROP ECOL CONS.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY(ECOL) 4750/6750.
Prerequisite: BIOL 1107-1107L and BIOL 1108-1108L.
Patterns and processes in the origin, maintenance, and loss of the high biological diversity in the tropics, emphasizing particular communities and ecosystems, including tropical rainforest, tropical savannas, tropical islands, and coral reefs.
Offered spring semester every odd-numbered year.

(ECOL)(ANTH)(CRSS)FORS 4760. Agroforestry in the Caribbean. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: AGROFORESTRY CARIB.
Exploration of the use of trees in subtropical and tropical agriculture systems. Study of design components and agroforestry practices of Caribbean production systems with consideration of social, economic, and environmental variables.
Non-traditional format: Field-based course for Maymester term with the major portion of learning occuring in field activities (experiential learning). Periodic field trips will take students to visit sites that represent the instructional material.
Offered summer semester every year.

(ECOL)(ANTH)CRSS(GEOG)(HORT) 4930/6930. Agroecology of Tropical America. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: AGROECOLOGY TROP AM.
Undergraduate prerequisite: Permission of department.
Crops and cropping systems in tropical America; influences of geography, climate, and socioeconomic factors, as well as the impact of agriculture, on the ecosystems of the region.
Offered spring semester every year.

(ECOL)(ANTH)CRSS(GEOG)(HORT) 4931/6931. Agroecology of Tropical America Field Trip. 3-6 hours. Repeatable for maximum 9 hours credit.
Oasis Title: AGECOL TRP FIELD TR.
Not open to students with credit in CRSS(HORT)(ANTH) 4940/6940.
Prerequisite: CRSS(HORT)(ANTH)(ECOL)(GEOG) 4930/6930 or permission of department.
Intensive field study in a tropical Latin American country; crops and cropping systems of tropical America; influences of geography, climate, and socioeconomic factors, as well as the impact of agriculture on the ecosystems of the region. Conducted in a tropical Latin American country.
Non-traditional format: Students will tour a tropical country and receive on-site instruction at a series of different farms and ecological preserves over a period of 18 days.
Offered summer semester every year.

ECOL 4940. Internship in Ecology. 2-4 hours. Repeatable for maximum 10 hours credit.
Oasis Title: INTERNSHIP ECOLOGY.
Prerequisite: Permission of department.
Supervised work experience with public agencies, non-profit environmental organizations, or industry concerning ecological topics.
Non-traditional format: Faculty members will arrange work hours with sponsoring agency. Faculty will arrange meetings with student to discuss progress.
Offered fall, spring, and summer semesters every year.

ECOL 4950. Senior Seminar. 1 hour. Repeatable for maximum 3 hours credit.
Oasis Title: SENIOR SEMINAR.
Prerequisite: Senior standing or permission of department.
Discussion and critical appraisal of reports of original research and/or surveys of the technical literature in ecology. Students will be responsible for oral presentations on current topics.
Offered fall and spring semesters every year.

ECOL 4960. Research. 2-4 hours. Repeatable for maximum 10 hours credit.
Oasis Title: RESEARCH.
Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing and permission of department.
Independent research in ecology under direction of individual faculty members.
Non-traditional format: Faculty members will arrange contact hours with individual student.
Offered fall and spring semesters every year.

ECOL 4960H. Research (Honors). 2-4 hours. Repeatable for maximum 10 hours credit.
Oasis Title: RESEARCH-HONORS.
Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing and permission of department and permission of Honors.
Independent research in ecology under direction of individual faculty members.
Non-traditional format: Faculty member will arrange contact hours with individual student.
Offered fall, spring, and summer semesters every year.

ECOL 4990. Senior Thesis. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: SENIOR THESIS.
Prerequisite: ECOL 4960 and permission of department.
Preparation of a written thesis, based upon research carried out under direction of a faculty supervisor.
Non-traditional format: Faculty will arrange contact hours with individual student.
Offered fall, spring, and summer semesters every year.

ECOL 4990H. Senior Thesis (Honors). 3-4 hours.
Oasis Title: SR THESIS-HONORS.
Prerequisite: ECOL 4960 and permission of Honors.
Preparation of a written thesis, based upon research carried out under direction of a faculty supervisor.
Non-traditional format: Faculty will arrange contact hours with individual student.
Offered fall, spring, and summer semesters every year.

ECOL 6080. Principles of Conservation Ecology and Sustainable Development I. 4 hours. 3 hours lecture and 1 hour lab per week.
Oasis Title: CONSERV SUST DEV I.
Prerequisite: ECOL(BIOL) 3500-3500L or permission of department.
Ecological principles applied to conservation of habitats and biodiversity. Influence of human activity on population dynamics, genetics, and community structure.
Offered fall semester every year.

ECOL 6130. Geographic Information Systems for Environmental Planning. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: GIS ENVIR PLAN.
An overview of spatial analysis tools and how they can be utilized in research, planning, and management, by exploring the fundamental concepts of Geographic Information Systems, remote sensing, and spatial analysis.
Non-traditional format: The class format includes both lectures and hands-on lab work using a variety of GIS software.
Offered spring semester every year.

ECOL(ANTH)(FORS) 6140. Principles of Conservation Ecology and Sustainable Development II. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: CONSERV SUS DEV II.
Prerequisite: ECOL 6080.
Social science dimensions of conservation and sustainable development; social, economic, and political considerations in managing natural resources; policy-level aspects to project implementation.
Offered spring semester every year.

ECOL 6400. Evolution of the Biosphere. 4 hours.
Oasis Title: EVOL OF BIOSPHERE.
Prerequisite: ECOL(BIOL) 3500-3500L and CHEM 2211 and MATH 2210.
Fundamental concepts and emerging ideas pertaining to the origin and maintenance of life and biological diversity and the role of biological diversity in biogeochemical cycles and ecosystem function.
Non-traditional format: Students must attend two hours of lecture each week as well as a two-hour discussion period. There are four regularly scheduled contact hours between the faculty member and students each week.
Offered spring semester every year.

ECOL 7000. Master's Research. 1-15 hours. Repeatable for maximum 20 hours credit.
Oasis Title: MASTER'S RESEARCH.
Prerequisite: Permission of department.
Research while enrolled for a master's degree under the direction of faculty members.
Non-traditional format: Independent research under the direction of a faculty member.
Offered fall, spring, and summer semesters every year.

ECOL 7300. Master's Thesis. 1-10 hours. Repeatable for maximum 10 hours credit.
Oasis Title: MASTER'S THESIS.
Prerequisite: Permission of department.
Thesis writing under the direction of the major professor.
Non-traditional format: Independent research and thesis preparation.
Offered fall, spring, and summer semesters every year.

ECOL 8000. Topics in Modern Ecology. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: TOPICS MOD ECOL.
Prerequisite: Permission of department.
Research topics in modern ecology presented by faculty of ecology, with emphasis on research grants and proposal writing.
Offered fall semester every year.

ECOL(ANTH) 8110. Tropical Ecological and Cultural Systems. 2 hours.
Oasis Title: TRPIC ECL CLTRL SYS.
Prerequisite: ECOL(FORS)(ANTH) 6140.
Characteristics of tropical ecosystems, tropical biological communities, and human cultures in the tropics; how they differ from those in the temperate zone, and the implications for conservation and development.
Offered spring semester every even-numbered year.

ECOL(PBIO) 8120-8120L. Plant Reproductive Ecology. 4 hours. 2 hours lecture and 4 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: PLT REPRO ECOL.
Prerequisite: Permission of department.
Pollination ecology, breeding systems, patterns of gene flow via pollen and seed dispersal, flower arrangement and phenology, and implications of reproductive biology for demography. Group and individual laboratory projects.
Not offered on a regular basis.

(ECOL)PBIO 8130. Macroecology Seminar. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: MACROECOLOGY SEM.
Prerequisite: BIOL 1104.
Prerequisite or corequisite: ECOL 4000/6000.
Macroecology is a rapidly emerging field focused on understanding ecological and evolutionary patterns and processes on large spatial and temporal scales. Macroecology lies at the interface of ecology, conservation biology, biogeography, phylogeography, and paleobiology. The course format is a combination of lectures and graduate seminar on current literature.
Offered fall semester every odd-numbered year.

(ECOL)ENTO(PBIO) 8150. Wetland Ecology. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: WETLAND ECOLOGY.
Prerequisite: Permission of department.
Principles of ecology, elemental cycling, hydrology, policy and management of marine and freshwater wetlands.
Offered spring semester every odd-numbered year.

(ECOL)ENTO(PBIO) 8150L. Wetland Ecology Laboratory. 1 hour. 3 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: WETLAND ECOLOGY LAB.
Prerequisite: ECOL(ENTO)(PBIO) 8150 or permission of department.
Techniques for the study of marine and freshwater wetlands. Optional weekend field trips will explore distant wetland sites.
Not offered on a regular basis.

ECOL 8170. Natural History of the Hymenoptera. 4 hours. 1 hour lecture and 6 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: NAT HIS HYMENOPTERA.
Prerequisite: Permission of department.
Natural history of the Hymenoptera, including evolution, ecology, and systematics. Identification of taxa of Hymenoptera and methods used in their study.
Offered fall semester every odd-numbered year.

ECOL 8220. Stream Ecology. 2 hours. Repeatable for maximum 8 hours credit. 2 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: STREAM ECOLOGY.
Prerequisite: Permission of department.
Current topics and literature from the standpoints of objectives, experimental design, data analyses, results, assessment of results, and significance to general stream ecology.
Offered spring semester every year.

ECOL 8230. Lake Ecology. 2 hours. Repeatable for maximum 8 hours credit.
Oasis Title: LAKE ECOLOGY.
Prerequisite: Permission of department.
Current topics and literature in the ecology of lakes, ponds, reservoirs, and wetlands.
Not offered on a regular basis.

ECOL 8300. Behavioral Ecology. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY.
Prerequisite: Permission of department.
Ecological variation, natural selection, and other evolutionary processes; sexual selection and sexual conflict, mating systems, sex allocation, the causes and consequences of sexual behavior, evolution of sex, parental care, cooperation, competition, and punishment.
Offered spring semester every even-numbered year.

ECOL(PBIO)(WILD) 8310. Population Ecology. 4 hours. 3 hours lecture and 2 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: POPULATION ECOLOGY.
Not open to students with credit in FORS 8310.
Prerequisite: ECOL(BIOL) 3500-3500L and permission of department.
Advanced ecological theory to biological populations. Mathematical and evolutionary treatment of population growth and regulation, niche theory, foraging theory, predator-prey theory, habitat selection, and competition.
Offered fall semester every year.

ECOL(WILD) 8322. Concepts and Approaches in Ecosystem Ecology. 4 hours.
Oasis Title: ECOSYSTEM CONCEPTS.
Not open to students with credit in FORS 8322.
Prerequisite: ECOL 4010/6010 or permission of department.
Ecosystem biogeochemical processes and the organism-organism, organism-environment interactions that regulate them. The relationship of ecosystem structure and function to foodwebs, global change, scaling, nonlinearity, self-organization, and approaches to study these.
Offered spring semester every year.

ECOL(PBIO)(WILD) 8325-8325L. Modeling Population Ecology. 4 hours. 2 hours lecture and 2 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: MODEL POP ECOL.
Not open to students with credit in FORS 8325-8325L or ECOL 8320-8320L.
Prerequisite: ECOL(PBIO)(WILD) 8310 and permission of department.
Review of some commonly used mathematical approaches to modeling ecological populations, including single species approaches (discrete and continuous time), age/stage structure, species interactions, spatial structure, harvesting, and management.
Offered spring semester every even-numbered year.

(ECOL)FORS 8330. Landscape Ecology. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY.
Not open to students with credit in FORS 8320-8320L.
The emerging field of landscape ecology, emphasizing the study of large land areas and the effects of spatial pattern on ecological processes. Fundamental theories, analysis tools, research methods, and their applications to natural resource management at broad spatial scales.
Offered fall semester every year.

ECOL 8400. Perspectives on Conservation Ecology and Sustainable Development. 1 hour.
Oasis Title: PERSP CONS SUST DEV.
Ecological issues of conservation and development.
Offered fall and spring semesters every year.

(ECOL)PBIO(FORS) 8410. Community Ecology. 4 hours.
Oasis Title: COMM ECOLOGY.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY(FORS)(ECOL) 8410.
Prerequisite: ECOL 4010/6010 and STAT 4220.
The applicability of advanced theory to multi-species communities. Patterns and processes that influence species composition, diversity, and function. Topics include deterministic vs. stochastic regulation, succession, resource partitioning, patch dynamics, island biogeography, and food webs.
Offered spring semester every year.

ECOL 8420. Watershed Conservation. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: WATERSHED CONSERV.
Prerequisite: BIOL 1108-1108L and permission of department.
Environmental problems in freshwater systems over a variety of scales (local to global) from a conservation perspective. Systems examined include streams, rivers, lakes, wetlands, groundwater and coastal waters, with a strong focus on effective incorporation of ecological knowledge into resource management efforts.
Offered fall semester every even-numbered year.

ECOL 8440. Principles of Agroforestry/Agroecology. 3 hours. 2 hours lecture and 2 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: AGROFOR AGROECOL.
Prerequisite: ECOL(BIOL) 3500-3500L or ECOL 4010/6010 or permission of department.
Agricultural intercropping, mixed forestry plantation practices, and sustainable resource use.
Offered fall semester every even-numbered year.

ECOL 8500. Theoretical Ecology. 2 hours. Repeatable for maximum 8 hours credit. 2 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: THEORETICAL ECOLOGY.
Theoretical literature in population, community, and ecosystem ecology.
Not offered on a regular basis.

(ECOL)ENGR 8560. Systems and Engineering Ecology. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: SYSTEMS & ENGR ECOL.
Prerequisite: ENGR 6940 or ECOL 8580-8580L or permission of department.
A focused study of the mathematical theory of environment, termed Environ Theory, and the analytical methodology emerging from it.
Not offered on a regular basis.

ECOL 8580-8580L. Theory of Systems Ecology. 4 hours. 3 hours lecture and 4 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: THEORY SYSTEMS ECOL.
Prerequisite: Permission of department.
Theory of complex systems applied to ecology and ecosystems. Team projects will be conducted in ecological modeling and systems analysis.
Non-traditional format: Team projects will be conducted on an unscheduled basis, requiring open access to laboratory and computer facilities.
Offered fall semester every year.

ECOL 8600. Nuclear Tracers in Ecology. 3 hours. 2 hours lecture and 3 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: NUCLEAR TRACER ECOL.
The use of stable and radioactive tracers in ecological research. Current use of nuclear tracers for carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur in soil, water, and terrestrial ecosystems.
Not offered on a regular basis.

(ECOL)EHSC(FISH)(WASR) 8610. Aquatic Toxicology. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: AQUATIC TOXICOLOGY.
Prerequisite: CHEM 2211 and CHEM 2211L and [EHSC 4490/6490 or PHRM(VPHY) 6910 or PHRM(VPHY)(POUL)(EHSC) 8920].
Toxicological effects of aquatic pollution focusing on fate and transport of xenobiotics; xenobiotic accumulation, dynamics, and toxicity in aquatic organisms; the analysis and modeling of the effects of aquatic pollution on organisms; and the determination of related risks to aquatic ecosystems and human populations.
Offered spring semester every odd-numbered year.

(ECOL)CRSS 8650. Nutrient Cycling Models. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: NUTR CYCLING MODELS.
Prerequisite: [CSCI 7010 and CRSS(MIBO) 4610/6610-4610L/6610L] or permission of department.
Structure, function, and performance of current nutrient cycling models used to simulate carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur transformations in the soil.
Offered every year.

ECOL(CRSS) 8660-8660L. Soil Biology and Ecology. 4 hours. 2 hours lecture and 4 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: SOIL BIOL ECOL.
Not open to students with credit in ECOL(CRSS) 6650-6650L.
Prerequisite: ECOL(BIOL) 3500-3500L or CRSS 4590/6590-4590L/6590L or CRSS(MIBO) 4610/6610-4610L/6610L.
Organisms in the soil environment, with emphasis on macrobiota and their functional roles in food webs and ecosystem processes.
Offered fall semester every even-numbered year.

(ECOL)WILD 8680. Animal Biodiversity and Conservation. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: ANIM BIODIV CONS.
Not open to students with credit in FORS 8680.
Prerequisite: ECOL(BIOL) 3500-3500L or FORS 3020-3020L or FANR 3200-3200L.
Topics include formal logic and conservation biology, habitat selection theory, landscapes and biodiversity, island biogeography and biodiversity, environmental variation, biodiversity, and resource use.
Offered fall semester every year.

ECOL(AAEC) 8700. Environmental Policy and Management. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: ENV POLICY & MANAGE.
Evolution, form, and substance of United States federal policies and programs that address ecological problems, focusing on the nature of problems and alternatives for effective resolution.
Offered fall semester every year.

ECOL 8710. Environmental Law Practicum. 4 hours. Repeatable for maximum 8 hours credit.
Oasis Title: ENVT LAW PRACTICUM.
Ecology, law, and other graduate students work together to address pressing environmental concerns identified by community stakeholders. Skills used include problem identification, research and analysis, legislative drafting, and presentations.
Non-traditional format: This practicum requires students to work on group projects. In addition to the three regular lecture hours, students work group must meet with the instructor and discuss its topic for at least one additional hour per week. Because students choose topics and form work groups after the semester begins, the class does not formally list a discussion hour as ECOL 8710D. (The timing of this hour will be scheduled by mutual agreement of the students working on a particular topic and the instructor.) The requirement of these additional meetings is clearly described in the syllabus.
Offered fall and spring semesters every year.

ECOL 8720. Environmental Law for Scientists. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: ENVT LAW SCIENTISTS.
Common and statutory law (federal, state, and local) principles intended to prevent and remedy pollution.
Offered spring semester every year.

(ECOL)(FORS)PBIO 8770. Communities and Ecosystems. 3 hours.
Oasis Title: COMM & ECO OF WORLD.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 8770.
Advanced synthesis of physiological, population, community, and ecosystem studies in the major terrestrial plant associations of the world.
Offered spring semester every even-numbered year.

(ECOL)(CRSS)(FORS)PBIO 8850-8850L. Terrestrial Biogeochemical Cycling. 4 hours. 2 hours lecture and 4 hours lab per week.
Oasis Title: TERR BIOGECHEM CYCL.
Not open to students with credit in BTNY 8850-8850L.
Prerequisite: ECOL(BIOL) 3500-3500L or STAT 4210 or STAT 4220.
Plant processes which mediate biogeochemical cycling on land. Includes survey of global element cycling, functions of essential elements, element acquisition, translocation and loss by plants, litter decomposition, and methods of estimating standing stocks of elements in and transfer rates of elements between ecosystem components.
Offered spring semester every odd-numbered year.

ECOL 8990. Problems in Ecology. 1-3 hours. Repeatable for maximum 9 hours credit.
Oasis Title: PROBLEMS IN ECOLOGY.
Prerequisite: Permission of department.
Analysis of contemporary themes in ecology.
Non-traditional format: Variable hours established by instructor.
Offered fall, spring, and summer semesters every year.

ECOL 9000. Doctoral Research. 1-12 hours. Repeatable for maximum 45 hours credit.
Oasis Title: DOCTORAL RESEARCH.
Prerequisite: Permission of department.
Research while enrolled for a doctoral degree under the direction of faculty members.
Non-traditional format: Independent research under the direction of a faculty member.
Offered fall, spring, and summer semesters every year.

ECOL 9300. Doctoral Dissertation. 1-12 hours. Repeatable for maximum 20 hours credit.
Oasis Title: DOCT DISSERTATION.
Prerequisite: Permission of department.
Dissertation writing under the direction of the major professor.
Non-traditional format: Independent research and preparation of the doctoral dissertation.
Offered fall, spring, and summer semesters every year.